This is a branch of river Padma, Bangladesh. Pic was taken at river bank during winter.


Restricted Substances in Ready-Made Garments.

In Ready-made garments – during the dyeing ,washing procedure several substances could present in finished garments, which cause health hazards and are banned world wide. If any of below substances are found during the final garments test procedure then garments seller must bear a penalty for that.

AZO Dyes:
Azo dyes are dyes which contain at least one azo bond (-N=N-) within the molecule. In textiles and apparels, azo dyes are commonly used as colorant. Certain azo dyes, when in a basic chemical environment or under certain enzyme conditions, can release harmful aromatic amines. Some of these aromatic amines are classified as carcinogens.

DISPERSE DYES (Which are classified to be allergenic) :
Disperse dyes are generally water-insoluble colorants that are mainly used for coloring polyester, nylon and cellulose acetate textile fibers. They have extremely high light fastness for very pale colors. Some disperse dyes have an allergenous (sensitizing) potential to human skin and can be considered as a possible threat to health, especially if the dyes exhibit poor perspiration fastness.

DYES (Which are classified to be carcinogenic):
Although the discussions of genotoxic substances in textiles in recent years have focused on azo dyes splitting off carcinogenic amines, the classification of carcinogenic dyes should not be limited to those azo dyes. These textile dyes classified by their nature may also give rise to mutagenic effects.

Biocides are biologically active substances, and their toxic and biocidal nature enables them to kill or harm living things. Since biocides by nature are used to have detrimental effects on biological organisms, they are at the same time a serious threat to living organisms that were not intended to be controlled. Biocides have adverse effects on the nervous system when entering into the human body. They may irritate eyes, skin, and the respiratory system. Dimethylfumarate (DMFu) is applied to prevent mildew/mould. It is a contact allergen and is able to cause allergenic reactions, even in the smallest concentrations, like fierce eczemas or burn injuries.

Denim Jeans Dyeing with Indigo

Indigo is a form of blue absorb dyes that is typically used for colouring of natural cotton yarn utilized for generation of jeans cloth intended for blue denims. Indigo is additionally used for dyeing wool plus silk. Indigo was a normal dye that has been extracted via plants these days it is man made.

Indigo ended up being produced from several plants through the history nevertheless the most famous indigo dye has been produced from typically the plants in the genus Indigofera. One of those plant life is Indigofera tinctoria which can be native for you to India that has been the earliest significant center to get production along with processing regarding indigo take dye. From there that arrived to help Ancient A holiday in Greece and The Italian capital where it absolutely was considered extra product. Additional Asian countries just like China, Asia and To the south East Asiatische nations furthermore used indigo for centuries yet India is recognized as oldest centre of indigo dyeing. Also its name items that. Traditional word for that dye, indikón – implies Indian. Journal changed that will to indicum. After that expression passed through German dialect then into The English language as the phrase “indigo”. That will shows that other regions of the old world received their indigo from Of India. Romans applied indigo piece of art and for healing and so that cosmetics. You can find tablets by 7th one hundred year BC Mesopotamia that explain to about colouring of the constructed from wool. In the Middle Age range indigo will become rare due to the fact heavy tasks imposed simply by Persian, Levantine, and Traditional merchants. As opposed to it folks used woad, a coloring made from guarana “Isatis tinctoria” that was chemically identical for the indigo. While, in the next half of the fifteenth century, Portuguese language explorer Vascuence da Serie discovered a lot way to China that exposed trade approach to India, often the Spice Countries, China, in addition to Japan. And then use of indigo rises with Europe. England, the Netherlands, and even England have been major importers of indigo for The european countries. European capabilities planted indigo plantations inside their tropical famille. Biggest farms were around Jamaica, Maiden Islands together with South Carolina as well as labor in these farms were Camera and African-American slaves. Easily accessible indigo in danger local woad industry thus France as well as Germany against the law imported indigo in the sixteenth century. All-natural indigo utilized until the innovation of manufactured indigo.

Healthy indigo inside India was performed like this: slice plant will be tied and also placed in the particular vats manufactured from brick padded with bare cement. Plants are usually then included with very clear fresh water along with left to be able to steep right up until fermentation comes to an end, usually 15 to 15 several hours. Liquor that may be yellow on color and is also a result of bouillonnement is joined beaters just where it is given wooden oars or simply by machinery. Colour of the muscle size changes straight into green, subsequently blue and into the indigo. Mass forms to the base of the value-added tax and is in that case extracted. Indigo mass can then be boiled, blocked and hard pressed to be dried as much as possible. Ultimate product is any dry large cut in cubes.

The 1st synthetic indigo dye has been done by A language like German chemist Adolf Von Baeyer in 1878 but functionality of indigo those 1st tries seemed to be impractical. Playing continued in addition to first from the commercial perspective practical man-made indigo was performed in 1897.

Saree / Sari / Shari

A sari, saree, or shari is a female garment from the Indian subcontinent that consists of a drape varying from five to nine yards (4. 5 metres to 8 metres) in length and two to four feet (60 cm to 1. 20 m) in breadth that is typically wrapped around the waist, with one end draped over the shoulder, baring the midriff. There are various styles of sari draping, the most common being the actual Nivi style, which originated in Andhra Pradesh.

The sari is usually worn over a petticoat in Marathi lehenga as well as shaya within eastern India, with a fitted upper garment commonly called a blouse (ravike in South India and also choli elsewhere). The blouse has short sleeves and is usually cropped at the midriff. The sari is associated with grace and it is widely regarded as a symbol of grace in cultures of the Indian subcontinent.